Aircraft performance degradation - The effects of inflight icing upon lift, drag and propulsive efficiency

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Proceedings titleSAE Technical Papers
ConferenceSAE 2011 International Conference on Aircraft and Engine Icing and Ground Deicing, 13 June 2011 through 17 June 2011, Chicago, IL
SubjectAerodynamic characterization; Air temperature; Aircraft performance; Atmospheric conditions; Cloud physics; Drag effects; Droplet diameters; Droplet size distributions; Environmental conditions; Environmental regimes; Flight research; High-lift devices; Ice-protection systems; Inflight icing; Parametric effects; Propeller blades; Propulsive efficiencies; Small droplets; Spectral parameters; Spectral widths; Supercooled droplets; Volumetric diameters; Airframes; Atmospheric temperature; Degradation; Drag; Infrared devices; Lift; Precipitation (meteorology); Research; Research aircraft; Structural frames; Supercooling; Transport aircraft; Drops
AbstractData is presented from a number of flight research aircraft, which have been involved in the research of the effects of inflight icing, in a variety of atmospheric supercooled droplet and mixed-phase icing environmental conditions. The aircraft Types considered cover both Pneumatic and Thermal Ice Protection Systems (IPS). Icing includes supercooled droplet impact icing upon airframe and propeller blades and cold-soaked frost icing. The drag effects of inflight icing, from mixed-phase small and large droplets encountered during the course of SALPEX cloud physics research operations, upon a Fokker F-27 turboprop transport aircraft, have been analysed. Furthermore, during the course of AIRS 1.5 and AIRS II inflight icing flight research operations, the NRC Convair conducted aerodynamic characterization manoeuvres, following and during icing accretion in a wide range of environmental conditions of altitude, air temperature, LWC and droplet spectra. The correlation of the effects of inflight icing accretion on the drag of the NRC Convair, with full droplet spectral parameters, for which the small (FSSP) and large (2D) portions of droplet spectra have been combined, has been analysed. The changes to profile drag, CDo, lift-dependent drag, k, and lift-curve slope, a, were analysed initially for correlation with Ta, LWC and FSSP MVD. With the airframe IPS ON, ΔCDo increases did not correlate with SLW exposure. Maximum Δk and Δ a degradations correlated with each other, and with air temperature. With airframe IPS OFF, maximum Δa degradations correlated with exposure to SLW, whereas maximum ΔCDo and Δk correlated with exposure to small droplet conditions. Furthermore, correlation of the aerodynamic parametric effects with LWC and the full-spectra droplet spectral parameters of 50VD (or MVD, when defined as median volumetric diameter), 80 VD, 95 VD and spectral width, approximated as maximum droplet diameter. When combined with LWC, the parameters of 95VD and maximum droplet diameter provided the better correlation of CDo, k and a icing-induced effects, essentially limiting canyons in the contour cross-plot of effects. The analysis also highlighted the need to include the full droplet size distribution for the determination of the most detrimental icing accretion environmental regimes. The effects of icing upon propulsive efficiency have been directly measured and correlated with atmospheric conditions. Finally, the drag effects of SLD icing upon an aircraft with high lift devices deployed has been analysed and correlated with atmospheric conditions. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.
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AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21271607
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Record identifierafbe0f9c-ff90-4f0d-8194-f6480aac888a
Record created2014-03-24
Record modified2016-05-09
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