Organic solvent-free cloud point extraction-like methodology using aggregation of graphene oxide

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Journal titleAnalytical Chemistry
Pages758765; # of pages: 8
SubjectAtomic fluorescence spectrometers; Atomic fluorescence spectrometry; Certified reference materials; Conventional methods; Electrostatic repulsion; Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer; Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry; Organic solvent-free; Agglomeration; Antimony; Bismuth; Colloids; Electrostatics; Extraction; Fluorescence spectroscopy; Inductively coupled plasma; Metal ions; Optical emission spectroscopy; Organic solvents; Spectrometers; Trace elements; Graphene
AbstractBecause of its unique properties and capability of formation of well-dispersed aqueous colloids in aqueous phase, graphene oxide can be used for the efficient preconcentration of heavy metal ions prior to their determination. The complete collection of graphene oxide colloids from water has generally been considered to be insurmountable. Here, graphene oxide aggregation triggered by introducing NaCl was used to develop a novel organic solvent-free cloud point extraction-like method for the determination of trace toxic metals. The graphene oxide sheets were uniformly dispersed in aqueous samples or standard solutions for a fast and efficient adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Bi(III), and Sb(III) owing to its hydrophilic character and the electrostatic repulsion among the graphene oxide sheets, and its aggregation immediately occurred when the electrostatic repulsion was eliminated via adding NaCl to neutralize the excessive negative charges on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. The aggregates of graphene oxide and analytes ions were separated and treated with hydrochloric acid to form a slurry solution. The slurry solution was pumped to mix with KBH4 solution to generate hydrides, which were subsequently separated from the liquid phase and directed to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer or directly introduced to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for detection. On the basis of a 50 mL sample volume, the limits of detection of 0.01, 0.002, 0.01, and 0.006 ng mL-1 were obtained for Pb, Cd, Bi, and Sb, respectively, when using atomic fluorescence spectrometry, providing 35-, 8-, 36-, and 37-fold improvements over the conventional method. Detection limits of 0.6, 0.15, 0.1, and 1.0 ng mL-1 were obtained with the use of slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The method was applied for analysis of two Certified Reference Materials and three water samples for these elements. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
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AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); Measurement Science and Standards (MSS-SME)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21270755
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Record identifier9f5f963d-b285-49d7-a693-ee32517b17c8
Record created2014-02-17
Record modified2016-05-09
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