Perspectives in molecular imaging using staging biomarkers and immunotherapies in alzheimer's disease

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Journal titleThe Scientific World Journal
Article number589308
SubjectABC transporter; alpha 2 macroglobulin; amyloid beta protein; apolipoprotein E4; biological marker; bleomycin hydrolase; CD33 antigen; clusterin; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; fluorodeoxyglucose; myeloperoxidase; oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1; Pittsburgh compound B; presenilin 1; presenilin 2; sortilin; tau protein; thioflavine; urokinase; amyloid beta protein; biological marker; muscarinic receptor; Alzheimer disease; article; cerebrospinal fluid; early diagnosis; histopathology; human; molecular imaging; neuropathology; nonhuman; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; risk factor; Alzheimer disease; disease course; hippocampus; immunotherapy; metabolism; molecular imaging; multimodality cancer therapy; pathology; pathophysiology; review; severity of illness index; Alzheimer Disease; Amyloid beta-Peptides; Biological Markers; Combined Modality Therapy; Disease Progression; Early Diagnosis; Hippocampus; Humans; Immunotherapy; Molecular Imaging; Receptors, Muscarinic; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index
AbstractSporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an emerging chronic illness characterized by a progressive pleiotropic pathophysiological mode of actions triggered during the senescence process and affecting the elderly worldwide. The complex molecular mechanisms of AD not only are supported by cholinergic, beta-amyloid, and tau theories but also have a genetic basis that accounts for the difference in symptomatology processes activation among human population which will evolve into divergent neuropathological features underlying cognitive and behaviour alterations. Distinct immune system tolerance could also influence divergent responses among AD patients treated by immunotherapy. The complexity in nature increases when taken together the genetic/immune tolerance with the patient's brain reserve and with neuropathological evolution from early till advance AD clinical stages. The most promising diagnostic strategies in today's world would consist in performing high diagnostic accuracy of combined modality imaging technologies using beta-amyloid 42 peptide-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) positron emission tomography (PET), Pittsburgh compound B-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, total and phosphorylated tau-CSF, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging hippocampus biomarkers for criteria evaluation and validation. Early diagnosis is the challenge task that needs to look first at plausible mechanisms of actions behind therapies, and combining them would allow for the development of efficient AD treatment in a near future. © 2013 Benoît Leclerc and Abedelnasser Abulrob.
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AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); NRC Institute for Biological Sciences (IBS-ISB)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21269616
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Record identifier648aea45-e7ec-4a64-a170-7e4c32b05444
Record created2013-12-13
Record modified2016-05-09
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