Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures: Theory and experiment

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1063/1.4835095
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Journal titleApplied Physics Reviews
Article number11302
SubjectFabrication; Interface states; Interfaces (materials); Optical properties; Quantum confinement; Semiconducting germanium; Effective mass approximation; Experimental parameters; Fabrication method; Oxygen vacancy defects; Pseudopotential method; Structural and optical properties; Theoretical modeling; Tight binding methods; Silicon
AbstractThe role of quantum confinement (QC) in Si and Ge nanostructures (NSs) including quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells is assessed under a wide variety of fabrication methods in terms of both their structural and optical properties. Structural properties include interface states, defect states in a matrix material, and stress, all of which alter the electronic states and hence the measured optical properties. We demonstrate how variations in the fabrication method lead to differences in the NS properties, where the most relevant parameters for each type of fabrication method are highlighted. Si embedded in, or layered between, SiO2, and the role of the sub-oxide interface states embodies much of the discussion. Other matrix materials include Si3N4 and Al2O3. Si NSs exhibit a complicated optical spectrum, because the coupling between the interface states and the confined carriers manifests with varying magnitude depending on the dimension of confinement. Ge NSs do not produce well-defined luminescence due to confined carriers, because of the strong influence from oxygen vacancy defect states. Variations in Si and Ge NS properties are considered in terms of different theoretical models of QC (effective mass approximation, tight binding method, and pseudopotential method). For each theoretical model, we discuss the treatment of the relevant experimental parameters.
Publication date
PublisherAIP Publishing
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; Measurement Science and Standards
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21272837
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Record identifier1af738ea-a199-4323-bd47-94870e6c3859
Record created2014-12-03
Record modified2016-05-09
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